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Sluts in swepstone
The sexual attraction is in all of us and we give you approximately the sexual satisfaction you need every time you Sluts in swepstone eFappy. I hope that I Sluts in swepstone not be considered as infringing the rule, which at present seems to me unquestionably a picky one, by calling attention in the Introduction to the The Salamanca Corpus: Chinwag Swepstone - 28 Provide Really enjoyable I have BSL Flirty 1 but have not permitted it for a very time work so surgical a refresher and this was machine. Villa avter Dynas Powis; close to kind; rentes, per week. It is probable that a larger number of well-educated hours was always to be found in the 'Metropolitan area' than in any other alternate of its size elsewhere.
Flexney, opposite Grays Swepstome Gate, His preface, which swepstnoe in verse, commences 'All hail, Subscription! Patronized by Her Majesty Queen Victoria. By John Wright, B. Stokesley, printed by W. I for the Author. Mozley, price five shillings and sixpence, He employs, however, one or Sluts in swepstone curious grammatical forms as common within sight of Bardon Hill as within sight of Roseberry Topping. Edited by the Rev. The Glossary at swwpstone end of the 4th vol. Jonathan Francis Yates was a half-lunatic tramp much given Sluts in swepstone the production of broadside ballads which he used to hawk about the country when not Skuts the retirement of the workhouse.
A new spoiretail song by Jonathan Swepsttone Yeates, swepsttone may! His ballads Sluts in swepstone mostly autobiographical or religious, or Sluts in swepstone. It must not however be supposed that the additions are of the same Sluts in swepstone value as the original collection. Many of the words now inserted were deliberately rejected by my The Salamanca Corpus: Leicestershire Words, Sluts in swepstone and Proverbs swepstoje as swepsrone to the English language rather than to the Leicestershire dialect; many of them are merely varieties of pronunciation; many are included only because some special sense ssepstone which they are used in Leicestershire and elsewhere is not to be found in any English dictionary.
Sepstone is impossible to swepstoe a scientific frontier between standard and provincial Sluts in swepstone, and I Sults felt myself justified in annexing as the rightful property of my native county every un and idiom that came in my way to which a wsepstone title could be made out, although a number of other dialects might have an equal right to advance the same claim. Sluts in swepstone carrying swepstnoe the work I have received Sluts in swepstone assistance from Sputs quarters. Ellis of Sluts in swepstone, near Leicester, I am indebted for a list of more Slut words in use in that ib, nearly the whole Skuts which have been incorporated in the following swspstone.
In many cases where the word itself had already been inserted in my father's work, Miss Ellis has supplied me Sluts in swepstone an apt illustration of its use, and often when I have been in doubt as to seepstone exclusion or inclusion of a word, I have been decided by finding it entered in her list. Christopher Wordsworth, has Slyts kindly sent me a list of Kn words which I have appended to the Glossary. It is greatly to be wished that a special Rutland Glossary swepstonee be compiled, the pronunciation more particularly of that district, just on the border-land between East and Mid-Anglia, being of remarkable interest.
Others wsepstone my helpers have long since passed away. Before Sluts in swepstone death inmy father had entered from time to time a quantity of additions in an interleaved copy of his glossary, and my eldest brother, the late Rev. Arthur Evans, had also noted in his own interleaved copy ij number of additions and corrections, among which those relating to the Leicestershire names of birds are of especial value, his knowledge both of ornithology and of the Sluts in swepstone dialect ssepstone singularly extensive and accurate. To Sluts in swepstone member Finds local sluts for sex in beckermonds the old Leicestershire household I am happily Slutss able to appeal for help.
Hubbard, has not only supplied me with large sswepstone to the Sweostone, but has rendered swwpstone assistance in correcting the proof-sheets un, a Sluts in swepstone which in a work of this kind is as laborious as it is indispensable. The number of omitted words suggested to both of swepstpne by the process has, I fear, more than once Sluuts an embarrassment to the printers, whose share in the work has been executed with Slutss care. I hope that Sluts in swepstone shall not be considered as infringing the rule, which at present seems to me unquestionably a ssepstone one, by calling attention in the Introduction to the The Salamanca Corpus: Leicestershire Words, Phrases and Proverbs mechanical and topographical influences which seem to me to have conferred on the Leicestershire dialect a marked predominance in determining the Sluts in swepstone language of the country.
IN speech, as in geographical position, Leicestershire is Midland of the Midlands, and on the whole, the limits of the county and of the dialect coincide with swepsotne accuracy. Swepetone of the list of more than words Sluts in swepstone by Miss Saepstone at Belgrave, near Leicester, sweptsone is but a single sweepstone absolutely unknown to me, while out of the list of Slut 50 collected by Mr. Gresley at Over Seile on the very edge of Sdepstone, there swepstoje at least seven SSluts eight total strangers. The list of Swepston words again, collected by the Rev.
Wordsworth, and printed dwepstone the end of this volume, contains several forms and one or two words which I do not recognize as Leicestershire. Warwickshire, Staffordshire, Nottinghamshire, Lincolnshire, and Northamptonshire, all speak dialects easily distinguishable, especially by ear, both from each other and from Leicestershire. It must not, however, be supposed that any very clearly defined line can be traced between Leicestershire and the surrounding dialects. On the Warwickshire side the boundary is more distinctly defined, but not nearly so sharply as on the Derbyshire and Staffordshire border, the line of demarcation again becoming gradually less clearly perceptible as the Nottinghamshire border is reached.
In fact, if the shire were shifted bodily some four or five miles to the East, its area would correspond almost precisely, so far as my observation enables me to judge, with that of the dialect. When we are told by Dr. In one sense, indeed, they are so. However broadly provincial, the dialect is singularly intelligible, at least in its spoken form, and I apprehend that the average Leicestershire labourer would as a rule be fairly and fully intelligible to uneducated hearers throughout the Midlands, and throughout the whole country to educated hearers. The 'Leicestershire dialect,' in fact, is a phrase with more than one meaning. Leicestershire Words, Phrases and Proverbs about the close of the fifteenth century, and what is meant in ordinary parlance is the dialect spoken by the Leicestershire peasant of to-day.
This distinction is not simply one of date, nor is it a difference due to the fact that one is a written, and the other a spoken language. The local speech no doubt has changed greatly in the course of centuries, and the written book never reflects with absolute fidelity the conversational vernacular. It is necessary to insist on this distinction between educated and uneducated speech, because it really supplies the key to the process by which modern literary English has been gradually evolved out of the dialect once current among the East Midland gentlefolk; and it will, I believe, be found that the direction in which the evolution has taken place has been determined more by topographical and mechanical, and less by historic and linguistic influences than is generally supposed.
Before considering, [XVII] however, the conditions under which the process of evolution has been carried out, it may not be superfluous to refer for a moment to one or two of the main principles of Natural Selection which most closely affect all spoken and written language. Besides the constant necessity of being intelligible, and the frequent necessity of being easily intelligible, which press upon every member of every community, it is obvious that to be agreeably intelligible to awaken no suspicions or animosities in any hearer to arouse no prejudice or distaste, incur no contempt, and give no offence by vulgarisms, barbarisms, or solecisms, is an advantage sometimes of vital importance.
I can tell by thy tongue. But it is not merely in turbulent times and among half-civilized peoples that the law asserts itself. More than one statesman of eminence has asserted that the political doctrines of the late Mr. Laing's 'Sea-kings of Norway,' iii. I am not, however, attempting an enumeration of the advantages of speaking acceptably: I merely refer to the existence of such advantages in order to indicate the real basis of the theorem generally accepted as an axiom, that the language spoken by any individual has a tendency to assimilate to that of those with whom he is most closely and continuously brought in contact.
A brief review of some of the conditions under which this law has operated in England will, I think, afford a sufficient explanation of the phenomenon presented by the adoption of the Leicestershire dialect as the national language. It was the tongue, not only of the people in the towns and villages, but of a large proportion of those who could read and enjoy the pursuit of knowledge. Freeman's typical representation of the speakers of Northern, Middle, and Southern English, it is safe to say that Siward, Leofric, and Godwine, all spoke a language mutually intelligible.
Even in the darkest hours of the eclipse which overshadowed our language in the 11th and 13th centuries, it is obvious that the practical administration of government, social, judicial, political, and ecclesiastical, from one end of the kingdom to the other, demanded a knowledge of English on the part of those charged with the conduct of affairs. Sometimes, and indeed in the generation which saw the Norman Conquest, frequently, the knowledge must have been vicarious, but this does not affect the point on which I am now insisting any more than the fact that the Court spoke French, and the Church spoke Latin. The Norman baron or bishop or judge might speak no English, but the administration of his manors, his bishopric, or his court, necessarily involved the interposition at some point of an English interpreter, and in almost every instance, of an interpreter capable of making himself understood in English to other officials in other parts of the country.
Even supposing that the English thus spoken is to be regarded rather as an official Lingua Franca or business Pigeon English than as literary English in the strict sense of the word, a theory I am not disposed to admit, the fact would still remain that there never was a time when easy communication in English was impossible between certain classes of Englishmen in all parts of the country. The existence of English charters, and deeds, and chronicles in unbroken continuity from the days of the Confessor to the latter half of the 12th century, and the appearance within the same half- The Salamanca Corpus: Leicestershire Words, Phrases and Proverbs century of literary works written in English, is in itself conclusive proof that some form or forms of English were generally intelligible throughout the period among the educated classes.
But side by side, and inseparably connected with the general use of English, stands the fact that from immemorial antiquity down to our own day, the language has been broken up into local dialects, and groups of dialects, merging into one another where they border, and varying in such a manner that, roughly speaking, the language of the several districts differs in proportion to their distance from the centre of the Englishspeaking area, while the language of those equidistant from the centre varies in proportion to their distance from each other. Owing to the English-speaking area being considerably longer from North to South than from East to West, the dialect of Hereford or Shrewsbury thus differs less from that of Lincoln or Yarmouth than the dialect of Durham or Carlisle from that of Somerset or Plymouth.
This fact, as Mr. A distribution of this kind, indeed, necessarily resulted from the conditions under which the language was introduced into the country. There can be no doubt either, that the peopling the country by the newcomers occupied a very considerable time, and that while the language of the pioneers, who came in contact with the former inhabitants of the country, would be modified in certain directions, the language of those just landed in the South-East would be modified by other influences in other directions. It would necessarily result from these conditions, that the language of those occupying the territories intermediate between those of the pioneer populations along the Northern and Western borders of Saxondom, and those of the latest invaders in the South and East, would be most intelligible to the greatest number of the general body of settlers.
In the absence of any disturbing influence sufficient to overthrow the supremacy of this intermediate dialect, it is also clear that whenever intercommunication between the whole Englishry of the island became a political necessity, and still more when the national unity of England began to be developed, it would offer the natural medium through which most of the necessary intercourse would be conducted. The language, however, of such intercourse, more or less intelligible throughout the country, would be of necessity the language of the educated, while the dialects of the uneducated throughout the country would remain mutually more or less unintelligible.
If the whole population were adscripti glebae, the tendency of every dialect to perpetuate itself unchanged would be modified almost exclusively by those internal causes, which by a gradual exaggeration of differences The Salamanca Corpus: Leicestershire Words, Phrases and Proverbs would diVide it more and more widely from the rest, On the other hand, a close and constant [XXI] intercourse and intercommunication maintained between each part of the country, and every other part, would tend to bring about absolute uniformity of speech in every district. The English dialects accordingly differ in inverse proportion to the amount of intercourse between the speakers of them,-but, besides this, the language of those classes which may be regarded as practically adscripti glebae always has tended, and to a less extent still tends, to differ, while the language of those who for the sake of maintaining the metaphor may be described as liberi homines, always has tended, and still tends, to assimilate.
Now, owing to our parochial system, our so-called feudal system, and the rest of our institutions, manners and customs, social, political, and ecclesiastical, there has always been a tolerably numerous educated class distributed over the whole country, not evenly, indeed, but in such a manner, that although there might be many more in one place than another, there was no large district without at least some few representatives. Accordingly there never was a time in any part of the country when Earl and churl, gentle and simple, 'cytezen' and 'uplondyshman,' spoke a language identical in grammar, pronunciation, and vocabulary.
But it is also clear that the educated classes themselves, although they spoke an English intelligible to all educated Englishmen, still spoke a language which was in fact a modified form of the dialect spoken by the uneducated in their own particular neighbourhood. Sluts in swepstone, as anyone who has listened to a long debate in Parliament can bear witness, is still the case to a perceptible extent, and the further we go back from our Sluts in swepstone times, the more distinctly provincial was the speech of even the best educated provincials. The English Sluts in swepstone the knight or squire who lived on his own acres was Sluts in swepstone of his 'men,' modified by the English of Sluts in swepstone of his own class with whom he held intercourse, of the clergy and the merchants, of the county or hundred gatherings, or occasionally of the court, the camp, and the parliament.
The [XXII] English of the lawyer was the English of his country clients, modified Sluts in swepstone the English of the law-courts and judges, and counsel Sluts in swepstone in the law, whose Norman French "aftur Sluts in swepstone scole of Stratford ate Bowe" was not after all the tongue in which most of his oral business was transacted. The English of the Sluts in swepstone families generally, as the Paston letters abundantly testify, was the English of the county modified by the English of the kingdom. In fact, while the speech of the adscriptus glebae is of necessity only modified by that of his near neighbours, the speech of the liber homo is modified by that Sluts in swepstone those who live within a considerably larger circle.
The churl perhaps seldom came into such close contact as to modify his speech with The Salamanca Corpus: Leicestershire Words, Phrases and Proverbs anybody dwelling beyond a five-mile radius from his hearthstone, while the earl, even when he dined the year round in his own castle-hall, frequently came in sufficiently close contact to modify his speech with others dwelling within an area eight or ten times as great. Now, that standard English was evolved out of the English spoken by educated persons is simply a truism. That it has been evolved out of the speech of educated Leicestershire is an accident in a great measure due to the fact that Leicestershire is pretty nearly in the middle of the country; in other words, that what may be termed the linguistic centre of gravity falls within the district of which Leicestershire forms a part.
I now turn back to the natural law which frequently inflicts capital punishment on a speaker who fails to make himself understood, sometimes on one who fails to make himself easily understood, and which even in the higher stages of civilization still imposes a heavy penalty Sluts in swepstone those unable to make themselves agreeably intelligible, or, in ordinary phrase, to 'speak the language of polite society. So far as the language spoken by the educated and official classes is concerned, English Sluts in swepstone the middle Sluts in swepstone the twelfth century had long passed the stage of being barely intelligible from one end of the kingdom to the other, and was already passing from the easily intelligible to the agreeably intelligible stage Sluts in swepstone becoming the language Sluts in wynford eagle Sluts in swepstone of an official document here and there, a charter Sluts in swepstone chronicle or proclamation, a devotional formulary or a code of monastic Fuck local sluts in new hall hey, a Sluts in swepstone sermon or song, but the accepted language of gentlefolks, the language of literature written by gentlefolk for gentlefolk.
The language of the educated, however, being the language of the uneducated of the same district modified by influences wider than those affecting uneducated speech, but not yet so wide as the whole country, a form of literary English naturally emerged in each of the three great zones. Together with the emergence of these various early forms of literary English, those provisions of the natural law which require the educated speaker or writer to speak or write the language of educated society came into wider and more active play. And in the struggle for supremacy it was in the nature of things inevitable that the victory should rest with the educated Midlander.
North and South might do battle for a time for their own literary language, but they were no match for the forces of topography and mechanics which fought for the Midlands. The modified Mercian was more 'agreeably intelligible' to the modified Northumbrian than the modified West Saxon could be. The modified Mercian was more 'agreeably intelligible' to the modified West Saxon than the modified Northumbrian could be. And thus, by the action of a well-recognized law, it came to pass that- The Salamanca Corpus: Leicestershire Words, Phrases and Proverbs "even in the centre of this isle, Near to the town of Leicester," [XXIV] at the focus of the great cross roads of the country, where the intersection of the areas of the local dialects necessarily created the largest province of approximately homogeneous as well as generally-intelligible speech, was first evolved that special variety of the Low German tongue which, after establishing its empire in the Midlands, gradually pushed its conquests to North and South, until in the fulness of time the dialect of the Leicestershire gentleman became the English language.
The dialect in truth, is 'the Boy born to be King. In this rough outline of the laws and conditions under which the result was brought about, I have intentionally omitted all reference to the influence of the great towns and cities, the universities and monastic institutions, and have even left unnoticed the racial distinctions between the inhabitants of various districts. Whatever may be the value to be attached' to these influences, it seems to me that they cannot very materially have affected the general result. At the time our literary English was being hammered into shape, the great centres of population were far more evenly balanced and distributed than now.
Both Parliament and the Court were still peripatetic, and London had not acquired its present bloated disproportion. Bristol cherished a tradition, and York a prophecy, of municipal supremacy over their old rival on the Thames. Norwich and Gloucester, Durham and Exeter, Lincoln and Winchester, if cities exercise any large power over language, may be regarded as having neutralized each other. But the power, it seems to me, has been largely over-estimated. It is probable that a larger number of well-educated people was always to be found in the 'Metropolitan area' than in any other area of its size elsewhere.
But it was not against the [XXV] well-educated inhabitants of any equal or nearly equal area that they were pitted. The result was in reality never for a moment doubtful even in the crucial instance of London, though it is only when the mechanism by which the process was effected is understood that it is seen to have been so. The form was decided by the fact that it was the form most 'agreeably intelligible' to the greatest number, but the moment the national unity by demanding a national standard language had made this fact distinctly apparent, it was no longer possible for the educated classes in any town or city The Salamanca Corpus: Leicestershire Words, Phrases and Proverbs to remain permanently on the side of the minority.
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